United Kingdom Facts
- Full name:
United Kingdom of
Great Britain and
242,514 sq km
(93,638 sq miles)
years (men), 82
years (women) (UN)
unit: 1 pound
sterling = 100 pence
- Main exports:
- GNI per
$38,370 (World Bank,
Area: 243,610 sq. km. (94,058 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than Oregon.
Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan pop. about 8.615 million). Other
cities--Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bradford,
Manchester, Edinburgh, Bristol, Belfast.
Terrain: 30% arable, 50% meadow and pasture, 12% waste or urban, 7%
forested, 1% inland water.
Land use: 25% arable, 46% meadows and pastures, 10% forests and
woodland, 19% other.
Climate: Generally mild and temperate; weather is subject to frequent
changes but not often to temperature extremes.
Nationality: Noun--Briton(s). Adjective--British.
Population (July 2011 est.): 62,698,362.
Annual population growth rate (2011 est.): 0.557%.
Major ethnic groups (2001 census): White 92.1% (of which English 83.6%,
Scottish 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9%), black 2%, Indian 1.8%,
Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6%.
Major religions (2001 census): Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic,
Presbyterian, Methodist) 71.6%, Muslim 2.7%, Hindu 1%, other 1.6%,
unspecified or none 23.1%.
Major languages: English, Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic.
Education: Years compulsory--12. Attendance--nearly 100%. Literacy--99%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--4.62 deaths/1,000 live births. Life
expectancy (2011 est.)--males 77.95 years; females 82.25 years; total
Work force (2009, 31.25 million): Services 80.4%; industry 18.2%;
Type: Constitutional monarchy.
Constitution: Unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state), prime minister (head of
government), cabinet. Legislative--bicameral Parliament: House of
Commons, House of Lords; Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, and
Northern Ireland Assembly. Judicial--magistrates' courts, Crown Court,
high court, appellate courts, Supreme Court.
Subdivisions: Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland (municipalities,
counties, and parliamentary constituencies).
Political parties: Conservative, Labour, Liberal Democrats, U.K.
Independence Party, British National Party, Green Party. Also, in
Scotland, Scottish National Party; in Wales, Plaid Cymru (Party of
Wales); in Northern Ireland, Democratic Unionist Party, Sinn Fein,
Ulster Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Alliance
Party, Traditional Unionist Voice, Green Party, Progressive Unionist
Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries
and the Irish Republic resident in the U.K., at 18.
GDP (at current market prices; International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2011):
Annual growth rate (IMF, 2010): +1.14%.
Per capita GDP (at current market prices; IMF, 2011): $39,604.
Natural resources: Coal, oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore,
salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica.
Agriculture (0.6% of GDP; U.K. Office for National Statistics (ONS),
2011): Products--cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, sheep,
Industry (21.9% of GDP; ONS, 2011): Types--steel, heavy engineering and
metal manufacturing, textiles, motor vehicles and aircraft, construction
(7.0% of GDP), electronics, chemicals.
Services (77.4% of GDP; ONS, 2011): Types--financial, business,
distribution, transport, communication, hospitality.
Trade (at current prices, 2011 exchange rates; ONS, 2011): Exports of
goods and services--$782.7 billion. Major goods exports--manufactured
goods, fuels, chemicals, food, beverages, tobacco. Major export
markets--U.S., European Union. Imports of goods and services--$827.6
billion. Major goods imports--manufactured goods, machinery, fuels,
foodstuffs. Major import suppliers--U.S., European Union, and China.
The United Kingdom's population in 2011 surpassed 62 million. Its
overall population density is one of the highest in the world. Almost
one-third of the population lives in England's prosperous and fertile
southeast and is predominantly urban and suburban--with about 8.615
million in the capital of London, which remains the largest city in
Europe. The United Kingdom's high literacy rate (99%) is attributable to
universal public education introduced for the primary level in 1870 and
secondary level in 1900. Education is mandatory from ages 5 through 18.
The Church of England and the Church of Scotland are the official
churches in their respective parts of the country, but most religions
found in the world are represented in the United Kingdom.
A group of islands close to continental Europe, the British Isles have
been subject to many invasions and migrations, especially from
Scandinavia and the continent, including Roman occupation for several
centuries. Contemporary Britons are descended mainly from the varied
ethnic stocks that settled there before the 11th century. The
pre-Celtic, Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Norse influences were
blended in Britain under the Normans, Scandinavian Vikings who had lived
in Northern France. Although Celtic languages persist in Wales,
Scotland, and Northern Ireland, the predominant language is English,
which is primarily a blend of Anglo-Saxon and Norman French.
The Roman invasion of Britain in 55 B.C. and most of Britain's
subsequent incorporation into the Roman Empire stimulated development
and brought more active contacts with the rest of Europe. As Rome's
strength declined, the country again was exposed to invasion--including
the pivotal incursions of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes in the fifth and
sixth centuries A.D.--up to the Norman conquest in 1066. Norman rule
effectively ensured Britain's safety from further intrusions; certain
institutions, which remain characteristic of Britain, could develop.
Among these are a political, administrative, cultural, and economic
center in London; a separate but established church; a system of common
law; distinctive and distinguished university education; and
Both Wales and Scotland were independent kingdoms that resisted English
rule. The English conquest of Wales succeeded in 1282 under Edward I,
and the Statute of Rhuddlan established English rule 2 years later. To
appease the Welsh, Edward's son (later Edward II), who had been born in
Wales, was made Prince of Wales in 1301. The tradition of bestowing this
title on the eldest son of the British Monarch continues today. An act
of 1536 completed the political and administrative union of England and
While maintaining separate parliaments, England and Scotland were ruled
under one crown beginning in 1603, when James VI of Scotland succeeded
his cousin Elizabeth I as James I of England. In the ensuing 100 years,
strong religious and political differences divided the kingdoms.
Finally, in 1707, England and Scotland were unified as Great Britain,
sharing a single Parliament at Westminster.
Ireland's invasion by the Anglo-Normans in 1170 led to centuries of
strife. Successive English kings sought to conquer Ireland. In the early
17th century, large-scale settlement of the north from Scotland and
England began. After its defeat, Ireland was subjected, with varying
degrees of success, to control and regulation by Britain.
The legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was completed on
January 1, 1801, under the name of the United Kingdom. However, armed
struggle for independence continued sporadically into the 20th century.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 established the Irish Free State, which
subsequently left the Commonwealth and became a republic after World War
II. Six northern Irish counties, predominantly Protestant, have remained
part of the United Kingdom.
British Expansion and Empire
Begun initially to support William the Conqueror's (c. 1029-1087)
holdings in France, Britain's policy of active involvement in
continental European affairs endured for several hundred years. By the
end of the 14th century, foreign trade, originally based on wool exports
to Europe, had emerged as a cornerstone of national policy.
The foundations of sea power were gradually laid to protect English
trade and open up new routes. Defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588
firmly established England as a major sea power. Thereafter, its
interests outside Europe grew steadily. Attracted by the spice trade,
English mercantile interests spread first to the Far East. In search of
an alternate route to the Spice Islands, John Cabot reached the North
American continent in 1498. Sir Walter Raleigh organized the first,
short-lived colony in Virginia in 1584, and permanent English settlement
began in 1607 at Jamestown, Virginia. During the next 2 centuries,
Britain extended its influence abroad and consolidated its political
development at home.
Great Britain's industrial revolution greatly strengthened its ability
to oppose Napoleonic France. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815,
the United Kingdom was the foremost European power, and its navy ruled
the seas. Peace in Europe allowed the British to focus their interests
on more remote parts of the world; during this period, the British
Empire reached its zenith. British colonial expansion reached its height
largely during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). Queen Victoria's
reign witnessed the spread of British technology, commerce, language,
and government throughout the British Empire, which, at its greatest
extent, encompassed roughly one-fifth to one-quarter of the world's area
and population. British colonies contributed to the United Kingdom's
extraordinary economic growth and strengthened its voice in world
affairs. Even as the United Kingdom extended its imperial reach
overseas, it continued to develop and broaden its democratic
institutions at home.
By the time of Queen Victoria's death in 1901, other nations, including
the United States and Germany, had developed their own industries. The
United Kingdom's comparative economic advantage had lessened, and the
ambitions of its rivals had grown. The losses and destruction of World
War I, the depression of the 1930s, and decades of relatively slow
growth eroded the United Kingdom's preeminent international position of
the previous century.
Britain's control over its empire loosened during the interwar period.
Ireland, with the exception of six northern counties, gained
independence from the United Kingdom in 1921. Nationalism became
stronger in other parts of the empire, particularly in India and Egypt.
In 1926, the United Kingdom, completing a process begun a century
earlier, granted Australia, Canada, and New Zealand complete autonomy
within the empire. They became charter members of the British
Commonwealth of Nations (now known as the Commonwealth), an informal but
closely-knit association that succeeded the empire. Beginning with the
independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, the remainder of the British
Empire was almost completely dismantled. Today, most of Britain's former
colonies belong to the Commonwealth, almost all of them as independent
members. There are, however, 14 former British colonies--including
Bermuda, Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, and others--which have elected
to continue their political links with London and are known as British
Although often marked by economic and political nationalism, the
Commonwealth offers the United Kingdom a voice in matters concerning
many developing countries. In addition, the Commonwealth helps preserve
many institutions deriving from British experience and models, such as
parliamentary democracy, in those countries.
The United Kingdom does not have a written constitution. The equivalent
body of law is based on statute, common law, and "traditional rights."
Changes may come about formally through new acts of Parliament,
informally through the acceptance of new practices and usage, or by
judicial precedents. Although Parliament has the theoretical power to
make or repeal any law, in actual practice the weight of 700 years of
tradition restrains arbitrary actions.
Executive power rests nominally with the monarch but actually is
exercised by a committee of ministers (cabinet) traditionally selected
from among the members of the House of Commons and, to a lesser extent,
the House of Lords. The prime minister is normally the leader of the
largest party in the Commons, and the government is dependent on its
Parliament represents the entire country. It legislates for the entire
country in matters that are not devolved to the legislatures in
Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, such as foreign policy, energy
policy, immigration and border control, and monetary policy. The
devolved legislatures in Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales have
varying degrees of legislative authority over other matters. England
does not have its own separate legislative body and Parliament can
therefore legislate in all fields for England. As of May 2010, the
maximum parliamentary term was 5 years, and the prime minister could ask
the monarch to dissolve Parliament and call a general election at any
time. Following the May 6, 2010 election the newly-formed
Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition government announced plans to
institute fixed 5-year Parliament terms. The Fixed-term Parliaments Act
was passed in early 2011, bringing in the 5 year parliamentary term.
There are two ways an early election could be called, both of which
involve votes in the House of Commons. One requires a vote of no
confidence in the current government, which can be passed by a simple
majority (326-324). If an alternative government then cannot be formed
within 14 days from the parties already in the House, then a general
election must take place. The other is a vote explicitly for a general
election, and requires a two-thirds majority, or 434 MPs, to pass. The
650-member House of Commons has sole jurisdiction over finance. The
House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review,
amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the
budget. The House of Lords has more time than the House of Commons to
pursue one of its more important functions--debating public issues. In
1999, the government removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to
hold seats in the House of Lords. The current house consists of
appointed life peers, who hold their seats for life, and 92 hereditary
peers, who will hold their seats only until final reforms have been
agreed upon and implemented. The judiciary is independent of the
legislative and executive branches, although the most senior judges (Law
Lords) have seats in the House of Lords. The doctrine of parliamentary
sovereignty means that the judiciary cannot review the constitutionality
Following approval of referenda by Scottish and Welsh voters in 1997,
the British Government established a Scottish Parliament and a Welsh
Assembly, both of which were launched in 1999. Scotland, Wales, and
Northern Ireland now each have legislative and executive bodies that
legislate on and administer many matters, though there is significant
variation in the extent of powers enjoyed by each of the devolved
governments. The devolved governments have taken over many of the
functions previously performed by the Scottish, Welsh, and Northern
Ireland offices, whose primary purpose now is to coordinate between
Westminster and the devolved administrations and to represent their
interests in non-devolved matters. Scotland has always maintained
different systems of law (Scots Law), education, local government,
judiciary, and national church (the Church of Scotland instead of the
Church of England). In January 2012 the ruling Scottish National Party
announced its intention to hold a referendum in Scotland on full
independence from the U.K. in 2014, and the U.K. government began
discussions with the devolved Scottish government as to the terms of
such a referendum.
Northern Ireland had its own Parliament and prime minister from 1921 to
1973, when the British Government imposed direct rule in order to deal
with the deteriorating political and security situation. From 1973, the
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, based in London, was
responsible for the region, including efforts to resolve the issues that
lay behind the "the troubles."
By the mid-1990s, gestures toward peace encouraged by successive British
and Irish governments and by President Bill Clinton began to open the
door for restored local government in Northern Ireland. A Provisional
Irish Republican Army (PIRA) cease-fire and nearly 2 years of multiparty
negotiations, led by former U.S. Senator George Mitchell, resulted in
the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) of April
10, 1998, which was subsequently approved by majorities in both Northern
Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Key elements of the agreement
include devolved government, a commitment of the parties to work toward
"total disarmament of all paramilitary organizations," police reform,
and enhanced mechanisms to guarantee human rights and equal opportunity.
The Good Friday Agreement also called for formal cooperation between the
Northern Ireland institutions and the Government of the Republic of
Ireland, and it established the British-Irish Council, which includes
representatives of the British and Irish Governments as well as the
devolved Governments of Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Devolved
government was reestablished in Northern Ireland in December 1999,
although certain key functions, such as policing and justice powers,
remained under Westminster control.
The Good Friday Agreement provides for a 108-member elected Assembly,
overseen by a 12-minister Executive Committee (cabinet) in which
unionists and nationalists share leadership responsibility. Northern
Ireland elects 18 representatives to the Westminster Parliament in
London. However, the five Sinn Fein members of Parliament, who won seats
in the last election, follow an abstentionist policy in which they
refuse to take their seats, although they do maintain offices and
perform constituency services. Progress has been made on each of the key
elements of the Good Friday Agreement. Most notably, a new,
more-representative police service has been instituted, and PIRA and the
other main republican and loyalist paramilitary groups have
decommissioned their weapons. However, a small number of splinter
republican groups continue to oppose the peace process and engage in
violence, particularly against the police, U.K. military, and the
justice sector. Disagreements over the implementation of elements of the
agreement and allegations about PIRA's continued engagement in
paramilitary activity troubled the peace process for several years. In
October 2002, Northern Ireland's devolved institutions were suspended
amid allegations of IRA intelligence gathering at Stormont, the seat of
Northern Ireland's government. Assembly elections scheduled for May 2003
were postponed. Elections were held in November 2003, but the Assembly
remained suspended. Finally, in 2007, the parties signed the St. Andrews
Agreement, which paved the way for the Northern Ireland Government to
stand up and for the devolution of powers to Belfast to occur.
Responsibility for police and justice issues in Northern Ireland were
the last component of devolution to take place; the transfer of these
powers from London to Belfast occurred on April 12, 2010, having been
provided for by the signing of the Hillsborough Agreement on February 4,
2010. The United States remains firmly committed to the peace process in
Northern Ireland and to the full implementation of the Good Friday
Agreement and subsequent agreements, which it views as the best means to
ensure lasting peace. The United States has condemned all acts of
terrorism and violence, perpetrated by any group.
The United States is committed to Northern Ireland's economic
development as a means of supporting a secure and stable peace, and
works closely with local government and trade and investment bodies to
highlight opportunities in the region. The United States has also been a
strong supporter of the International Fund for Ireland, which has sought
to enhance indigenous business prospects, redress inequalities of
employment opportunity and community services, and improve cross-border
business and cross-community ties.
Principal Government Officials
Head of State--Queen Elizabeth II
Prime Minister (Head of Government)--David Cameron (Conservative Party)
Deputy Prime Minister--Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat Party)
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs--William Hague
Ambassador to the U.S.—Sir Peter Westmacott
Ambassador to the UN--Mark Lyall Grant
The United Kingdom maintains an embassy in the United States at 3100
Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-588-6500; fax
The Labour government that had been in power since 1997, first under
Prime Minister Tony Blair and then under his successor, Gordon Brown,
lost its majority in the House of Commons in the May 6, 2010 election.
For the first time since 1974, however, no party was able to win a full
majority in the Commons, which led to several days of intense
negotiations between the Conservatives (Tories), who won the most seats,
and the Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems), who placed third in number of
seats won. On May 11, when it became clear that Labour would be unable
to form a government, Prime Minister Gordon Brown resigned, and David
Cameron became the new Prime Minister. Cameron subsequently announced a
formal coalition with the Liberal Democrats, which would ensure Liberal
Democrat support for a Conservative-led government in exchange for five
Liberal Democrat cabinet seats and policy compromises. As part of the
coalition deal, Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg became the Deputy
Prime Minister. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition has an
83-seat majority in the House of Commons, and the Labour Party forms the
official opposition. Gordon Brown resigned as Labour leader on May 11,
and was succeeded by Ed Miliband in a September 2010 Labour party
DEFENSE AND FOREIGN RELATIONS
The United Kingdom is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) and is one of NATO's major European maritime, air,
and land powers; it ranks third among NATO countries in total defense
expenditure. The United Kingdom has been a member of the European
Community (now European Union) since 1973. In the United Nations, the
United Kingdom is a permanent member of the Security Council. The U.K.
held the Presidency of the G-8 during 2005; it held the EU Presidency
from July to December 2005.
The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom
and its overseas territories, promoting Britain's wider security
interests, and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. In the
fall of 2010, the Coalition government announced the results of its
Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR). The SDSR was designed to
adapt the U.K.’s military to meet the country’s future security needs.
As a result of the cuts and re-organizations in the SDSR, the U.K. armed
forces’ manpower and equipment will be reduced. The Royal Navy will
reduce its manpower by 5,000 to 30,000 by 2015, and has retired its
aircraft carrier fleet as well as the Harrier jets which the fleet
carried. The Royal Air Force (RAF) will reduce its manpower by 5,000 to
33,000 by 2015. Its maritime reconnaissance aircraft fleet has also been
retired. The British Army will reduce its manpower by 7,000 to 95,500 by
2015 and withdraw all troops currently stationed in Germany.
The Royal Navy is in charge of the United Kingdom's independent
strategic nuclear arm, which consists of four Trident missile
submarines. The British Army, RAF, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines are
active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations.
Approximately 9% of the British Armed Forces is female, and 4% of
British forces represent ethnic minorities.
The United Kingdom stood shoulder to shoulder with the United States
following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S., and its
military forces are, after U.S. forces, the second-largest contingent of
the coalition force in Afghanistan. The U.K. force in Afghanistan stood
at approximately 10,000 as of June 2011, and the Prime Minister recently
announced the departure of 450 personnel as part of the drawdown of NATO
forces and the transition to Afghanistan taking the lead on security.
U.K. forces are primarily based in the Helmand region, where they are on
the front line in the war against continued Taliban operations. In
addition, the U.K. has committed over £700 million ($1.1 billion) to
development in Afghanistan over the next 4 years, making it the
second-largest donor after the United States. The U.K. was the United
States' main coalition partner in Operation Iraqi Freedom; its combat
forces withdrew from Iraq in July 2009.
The United Kingdom has the seventh-largest economy in the world, has the
second-largest economy in the European Union, and is a major
international trading power. A highly developed, diversified,
market-based economy with extensive social welfare services provides
most residents with a high standard of living.
The United Kingdom’s economy continues to recover from turmoil in the
financial markets. It entered a recession in the third quarter of 2008
and exited recession in the fourth quarter of 2009. Growth since then
has been patchy, held back by weak credit growth, a contraction in real
incomes, and the poor economic outlook in the U.K.’s major trading
partners. The U.K. economy contracted on a quarterly basis in the final
quarter of 2010 and the final quarter of 2011. In response to the
financial crisis, the British Government implemented a wide-ranging
stability and recovery plan that included a fiscal stimulus package,
bank recapitalization, and credit stimulus schemes. Extraordinary
monetary policy measures, including very low interest rates (0.5%) and a
quantitative easing program (£325 billion), remain in place. Despite
this, domestic demand remains weak and unemployment has yet to return to
pre-recession levels, standing at 8.4% in November 2011. The
Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government that took power in
May 2010 initiated a planned 5-year austerity program, which aims to
lower the U.K.’s budget deficit from over 11% of GDP in 2010 to near 1%
by 2015. Poorer than expected growth has meant that the coalition’s
budget deficit plans will now only be met in 2016/17.
As a leading international financial center, London was severely
impacted by the financial crisis in 2008. U.K. banks laid off thousands
of workers and scaled back their international operations during the
crisis, although many are now rehiring. Two U.K. banks, Northern Rock
and Bradford & Bingley, were nationalized, and the British Government
took significant shares in the Royal Bank of Scotland and Lloyds Banking
Group. In November 2011, the U.K. government sold Northern Rock to
Virgin Money. In spite of the damage caused by the financial crisis,
London’s financial exports contribute greatly to the United Kingdom’s
gross domestic product and will continue to do so. Over 1 million people
in the U.K. work in financial services, nearly 4% of total U.K.
employment. About one-third are employed in London. The U.K.’s financial
services industry contributed £124 billion ($200 billion) to U.K. GDP in
2009, accounting for 10% of total economic output. London is a global
leader in emissions trading, a center for Islamic banking, and home to
the Alternative Investment Market (AIM).
U.S.-UNITED KINGDOM RELATIONS
The United Kingdom is one of the United States' closest allies, and
British foreign policy emphasizes close coordination with the United
States. Bilateral cooperation reflects the common language, ideals, and
democratic practices of the two nations. Relations were strengthened by
the United Kingdom's alliance with the United States during both World
Wars, in the Korean conflict, in the Persian Gulf War, in Operation
Iraqi Freedom, and in Afghanistan, as well as through its role as a
founding member of NATO. The United Kingdom and the United States
continually consult on foreign policy issues and global problems and
share major foreign and security policy objectives.
The United Kingdom is the fifth-largest market for U.S. goods exports
after Canada, Mexico, China, and Japan, and the seventh-largest supplier
of U.S. imports. U.S. exports of goods and services to the United
Kingdom in 2011 totaled $56.0 billion, while U.S. imports from the U.K.
totaled $51.2 billion (U.S. Census Bureau). The United Kingdom is a
large source of foreign tourists in the United States. In 2010, 2.71
million U.S. residents visited the United Kingdom, while 3.85 million
U.K. residents visited the United States.
The United States and the United Kingdom share the world's largest
foreign direct investment partnership. U.S. investment in the United
Kingdom reached $309.4 billion in 2010, while U.K. direct investment in
the U.S. totaled $284.9 billion.
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador--Louis B. Susman
Deputy Chief of Mission--Barbara Stephenson
Minister-Counselor for Political Affairs--Robin Quinville
Minister-Counselor for Commercial Affairs--Dorothy Lutter
Minister-Counselor for Economic Affairs--Richard Albright
Minister-Counselor for Public Affairs--Thomas Leary (arrival August
Minister-Counselor for Management Affairs--Thomas J. Tiernan
Minister-Counselor for Consular Affairs--David Stewart
Regional Security Officer--Mark J. Hipp
U.S. Consul General in Belfast—Kevin S. Roland (acting)
U.S. Consul General in Belfast—Gregory S. Burton (arrival June 2012)
Principal Officer in Edinburgh--Dana M. Linnet
The U.S. Embassy in the United Kingdom is located at 24 Grosvenor Sq.,
W1A 1AE, London (tel.  (0)20 7499-9000; fax  (0)20 7409-1637).
The U.S. also maintains Consulate Generals in Belfast, Northern Ireland
and Edinburgh, Scotland.
Consulate General Belfast is located at Danesfort House, 223 Stranmillis
Road, Belfast BT9 5GR (tel.  (0)28 9038 6100; fax  (0)28 9068
Consulate General Edinburgh is located at 3 Regent Terrace, Edinburgh
EH7 5BW (tel.  (0)131 556 8315; fax  (0)131 557 6023).
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
Travel Alerts, Travel Warnings, Trip Registration
The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program advises
Americans traveling and residing abroad through Country Specific
Information, Travel Alerts, and Travel Warnings. Country Specific
Information exists for all countries and includes information on entry
and exit requirements, currency regulations, health conditions, safety
and security, crime, political disturbances, and the addresses of the
U.S. embassies and consulates abroad. Travel Alerts are issued to
disseminate information quickly about terrorist threats and other
relatively short-term conditions overseas that pose significant risks to
the security of American travelers. Travel Warnings are issued when the
State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a certain
country because the situation is dangerous or unstable.
For the latest security information, Americans living and traveling
abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Bureau of Consular
Affairs Internet web site at http://travel.state.gov, where current
Worldwide Caution, Travel Alerts, and Travel Warnings can be found. The
travel.state.gov website also includes information about passports, tips
for planning a safe trip abroad and more. More travel-related
information also is available at http://www.usa.gov/Citizen/Topics/Travel/International.shtml.
List of Banks in United
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British Bankers' Association
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Dormant or lost UK BAnk
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